Researchers found two new vulnerabilities that could affect AMD processors between 2011-2019. Attacks called Collide + Probe and Load + Reload affect the security of the data processed by the affected AMD CPUs. As a result, an attacker could steal information or affect security features. The team of six researchers from the University of Graz, Austria and the University of Rennes, France, details the findings in extensive documentation.
The research team contacted AMD about the issue in August 2019, but AMD said it hasn’t released a firmware update related to this issue since then. AMD said this attack is not a “new inference-based attack.” The research team disagrees with AMD.
Attacks target L1D cached predictors. This feature reduces power consumption by improving how the CPU handles cached data. Below is a detailed explanation of the researcher’s documentation.
Predictors compute μTag using undocumented hash functions on virtual addresses. This μTag is used to look up the L1D cache method in the prediction table. So the CPU should compare the cache tags only one way instead of all possible ways to reduce power consumption.
The researchers also analyze how the attack was exploited.
The first attack technique, Collide + Probe, utilizes μTag collisions of virtual addresses to monitor memory accesses of victims sharing the same logical core.
The second attack technique, Load + Reload, takes advantage of the property that a physical memory location can only exist once in the L1D cache. Therefore, accessing the same location with different virtual addresses removes the location from the L1D cache. This allows an attacker to monitor the victim’s memory access, even if the victim runs on sibling logic cores.
AMD responded by saying that “I believe AMD is not a new reasoning-based attack.” AMD believes that “this problem can be mitigated in software through side channel counter measurements.” The research team that discovered the attack told ZDNet that AMD’s response was “misleading” and that AMD had never been involved with the research team about the attack. The team also said that the attack still works on a full update operating system.
These attacks pose a security risk, but Daniel Gruss, one of the researchers who discovered the attack, Mention on Twitter Not as dangerous as Meltdown and Zombieload. He was attacked in response to another Twitter user [bits] Metadata Meltdown and Zombieload leak a lot of real data. “
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